investing in human and social capital new challenges for youtube
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Investing in human and social capital new challenges for youtube

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They interviewed knowledgeable officials in the government and private sector in each country and analyzed public reports and various secondary data sources e. Underutilization of the Labor Capacity of Nationals. The three Gulf countries rely heavily on non-nationals i.

Cultural and religious reasons keep the labor force participation rate considerably lower for female nationals than for male nationals, despite the tendency for female nationals to attain higher educational levels. When nationals are employed, it is mostly in the public sector.

This challenge, which predominantly affects Qatar and the UAE, reflects the preferential treatment nationals have historically received in the public sector, which outdoes the private sector in terms of compensation, working conditions, job security, and prestige. All four countries face this challenge, which signals a problem with matching workers to jobs at young ages. This problem stems in part from a mismatch between the skills of labor market entrants and the needs of employers, especially in the private sector.

Compared with female nationals, male nationals in the three Gulf countries tend to be particularly vulnerable to unemployment because of their lower rates of attaining post-secondary degrees. There is general acknowledgment that the quality of the primary and secondary education systems in these countries is not up to international standards.

The portion of secondary school graduates considered unprepared to directly enter the labor market with relevant skills or to enter competitive university programs is significant. Evidence points to low levels of performance on internationally benchmarked student assessments; low shares of students whose studies at the secondary and post-secondary levels concentrate in the critical fields of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology; and low rates of obtaining post-secondary degrees.

Brain Drain. Lebanon has suffered from an outmigration of university-level graduates in recent decades because of civil war and ongoing political and economic instability. In consequence, the benefits of producing graduates from what is considered one of the region's finer higher education systems have been diminished.

Disparities in Access to Educational Opportunities. Lebanon and Oman, which both have lower per capita income and higher disparities in living standards than the other countries, must contend with disparities in access to and quality of educational opportunities for portions of their populations. Human capital challenges are the motivators of reforms that have been implemented or are under way in the four countries see Table 2.

Lebanon has not actively engaged in reforms to its education and training systems except for participating in international student assessments. This is not because Lebanon's leadership fails to recognize the importance of an effective education system for future economic success but, rather, because it recognizes that no fundamental changes can be made to these systems until the country's basic infrastructure and public-sector institutions are rebuilt.

The three Gulf countries also recognize the importance of advancing their education and training systems. With their greater resources, the Gulf countries have been able to engage in more-extensive reforms at all levels—primary and secondary education, higher education, and training. Primary and Secondary Education Reforms. Oman and Qatar are engaged in broad-based reforms to their primary and secondary education systems.

Qatar's education reforms are arguably the most comprehensive in the region; changes initiated in address the management and delivery of educational services, the curriculum, and the quality of teachers and other critical resources. Faced with the prospect of dwindling natural resources and spurred by a year map established in for the country's economic development, Oman initiated reforms to its publicly funded education system earlier than the other two Gulf countries.

Policymakers in two emirates within the UAE recently brought primary and secondary education reform to the forefront with the formation of the Abu Dhabi and Dubai Education Councils. Higher Education and Training Systems Reforms. The higher education and training reforms are a mix of strategies designed to focus on quality through curricular changes, international accreditation, and other reforms; to expand access by introducing new higher education institutions and providing scholarships; and to strengthen links to the labor market through job placement programs.

All three Gulf countries are making an effort to expand the number of technical and vocational colleges and to forge public-private partnerships to increase training opportunities for nationals, especially in skills required for the private sector. Although changes in the training domain are under way, efforts to address the needs in this area are not as systematic or sustained as those in the education domain.

Table 3 shows reforms that have been initiated to the labor markets and economies in the four countries. Labor Market Reforms. These reforms, specific to the three Gulf countries, address labor market barriers that have precluded employment of nationals in the private sector. One approach gives employers incentives to hire nationals through quotas or sanctions; another aims to make private-sector employment more attractive to nationals by equalizing public- and private-sector employment conditions; a third induces institutions to facilitate the transition of nationals to private-sector work through either training and financial support or job matching.

Lebanon is not instituting these types of labor market reforms, largely because its nationals are not concentrated in public-sector employment. Other Economic Reforms. These reforms, which seek to diversify and privatize the economy and, in Lebanon's case, provide for a more efficient public sector, potentially allow the nations' human capital to be utilized throughout their economies. The countries are pursuing a variety of measures to diversify their economies, promote their private sectors, and raise public-sector efficiency as a way to employ their citizenry and enhance the sustainability of their economies.

These measures include offering tax incentives to foreign companies to open branch offices and plants in the country, privatizing public utilities and other government-owned firms, relaxing restrictions on foreign ownership of companies in targeted sectors, opening free zones to expand and create new areas of economic activity, and creating a more efficient public sector. For many of the reforms, implementation has been recent, so there has been little time to assess effects.

Then again, for both recent reforms and those implemented up to a decade ago, evaluation has generally not been an integral part of planning for or implementing policy changes. In several instances, formal evaluations did accompany policy changes, or limited efforts were made to assess trends in outcomes before and after reforms were put in place. The split is set to come in to effect in , as it embarks on its own video streaming project. The social media giant is innovating in other areas too , having recently purchased a startup called Ozlo, the maker of a virtual assistant app for smartphones.

This move is geared toward enhancing the Facebook Messenger app by harnessing artificial intelligence AI. AI development at Facebook has been talked about extensively in recent weeks as researched set out to train two AIs to converse and negotiate. The project took a strange turn when researchers found that they had developed their own language that was more efficient than the human language they had been initially taught to use.

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Closing the loop: Why quality assurance must harness autonomous testing. Tom Ball.

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