The work of acclaimed academics Anna Stilz and Allen Buchanan will serve to provide a justification for the right of statehood but this paper will then focus on the present situation on the ground. There needs to be an analysis of whether Kurdish society is ready for statehood, if the rights of women and minorities are protected and whether a nationalist identity supersedes any other form of identity that Kurds may hold.
Another vital criterion which the Kurds in Iraq need to achieve is a stable economy, this then depends on the strengths and weaknesses of an oil-based economy and whether there is a capacity for diversification. Finally, and perhaps most importantly is an examination of the political structure, the nature of the different political parties and whether the democratic process is viable and representative of the will of the people.
The holistic nature of this paper will allow it to contribute towards a better understanding of the Kurdish nation, a nation which has been routinely disregarded throughout history. The plight of the Kurds has become more widely reported in recent years but the information and knowledge out there is still lacking.
Therefore, there will be no first-hand collection of information in the form of interviews or surveys. The information used throughout the paper will have been obtained from a balanced mix of books, journal articles and websites on the internet. There will be an attempt to draw upon the work of acclaimed academics to provide a theoretical framework to the various sections, this will better help the reader to understand relevant concepts such as statehood, sovereignty, self-determination and secession.
This will then be linked to the case-study of Kurdistan through both quantitative and qualitative data collections on various categories such as population figures, the economy with particular focus on natural resources and successfully linking the past to the present and formulating well- educated speculations on the future.
There are particular limitations attached to the methodology which I have applied, the first one has been difficulty in finding reliable secondary sources as the divisive and passionate nature of the topic can often lead to bias both for and against. An issue which can be viewed as either positive or negative has been the absence of primary sources. This could be seen as negative as I have not provided the audience with information I myself had obtained on the field but it is a positive due to the dangerous environment which I would have had to place myself in.
The appeal of statehood grew during the 19th and 20th, precipitated by the process of decolonization, the events of World War One and Two and finally the collapse of the Soviet Union. A tide of nationalism swept through each continent as nations of people sought to pursue a new form of self-governance, this created the impetus to replace the failed League of Nations. This is a limited ability to participate in the work of the UN general assembly without the ability to sponsor resolutions or vote on resolutions of substantive matters.
There is no shortage of political authorities and entities which aspire to reach the status of UN member-state, but there are conditions which need to be met. There is also an important distinction to be made, if met the above conditions only lead to De facto statehood and that is statehood which exists in reality but not in official law. The Kurds are the third largest ethnic group in the Middle East, behind the Arabs and the Turks, they were promised their own independent nation-state at the culmination of the First World War.
However, the treaty of Sevres was signed on the 10th August but was rescinded soon after as a result of a successful Turkish military campaign led by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk against British and French troops. The result of which was the Figure 2 - Territorial Map map of 'Greater Kurdistan' treaty of Lausanne, signed on 23rd July , which created the modern Republic of Turkey and deprived the Kurds of their own state.
What has followed in the ensuing decades has been decades of discriminatory policies at the hands of repressive regimes carried out under several different labels including nationalism, secularism, Pan-Arabism and even Islamism.
The Kurdistan Region of Iraq is a semi-autonomous entity which operates within the federal framework of the Republic of Iraq. The region operates as a quasi-state under a parliamentary democracy with Massoud Barzani as President and Nechirvan Barzani as Prime Minister. The first notion of Kurdish self-governance was agreed upon in March during a series of negotiations between revolutionary Kurdish figure Mustafa Barzani and Iraqi President Abdel Karim Qassem.
Mustafa Barzani responded with several military campaigns which achieved varying degrees of success. The three provinces of Erbil, Slemani and Dohuk were designated were demarcated as the boundaries of this semi-autonomous zone. There was, however, no agreement on the status and future of ethnically mixed areas which were claimed by both sides. Initial signs of self-rule were positive as free democratic elections were held in with the result being split evenly down the middle.
The idea of a tyrant being in possession of nuclear weapons in a region as volatile as the Middle East was greatly worrying for the civilian population who had horrifically witnessed the dangers in March This compelled the Kurds to take a two pronged approach of strengthening their own standing in the international community and also getting the best deal possible out of a weak and unstable government in Baghdad.
The geographic nature of Kurdistan is infamous for its mountains which separated the different tribes and have contributed to a lack of integration and interaction Kurds live as semi-pastoral nomads and the traditional societal structure is inherently that of tribal socio-political units, at the same time as having their own distinct territorial bases. Thus, some of these tribes have originated from one family and later evolved to become different units, inevitability competing with each other for power and authority.
According to Kedourie , the British colonial administration attributed their lack of support for an independent Kurdish state to the prevalence of tribal allegiance in the area which was seen as superseding any nationalist allegiances. This issue of tribalism has played a pivotal role in stagnating Kurdish nationalism, a concept which was better grasped by Arabs and Turks and has only recently been fully understood by Kurdish society. The effects of tribalism have been debilitating, in modern history the Kurds have failed to correlate the idea of statehood with a wider Kurdish identity, instead their campaigns have been limited to their own tribes or their own regions within Kurdistan.
The issue can be analyzed through the historical animosity between the Barzani and Zebari tribes, which resulted in multiple massacres from both sides. At one point estimates put their numbers as high as , as civilians increasingly looked for ways to avoid conscription at the height of the Iraq-Iran War.
Further moves away from tribalism would be greatly beneficial to Kurdish society and allow for the formation of a nationalist identity and a more concentrated push for statehood. One of the challenges which the KRG must overcome is that of honor-based violence leveled against female citizens.
This derives from a deeply patriarchal conservative culture which has manipulated religious text to reinforce its behavior. There is not enough awareness, enough knowledge, enough capacity. These traditions have been practiced for hundreds of years and now overnight it becomes a crime. Shelton, The KRG needs to push through with a civic grassroots movement which tackles the aforementioned issues and ultimately lead to greater gender equality within the Kurdistan Region.
The KRG has taken steps to combat the challenges of tribalism, conservatism and patriarchy but these need to occur at a more acceptable pace if Kurdistan is to become an independent nation-state. This differs to the Constitutive theory of statehood which declares that an entity is not a State unless it is recognized as a State by the international community. It is based on a legal construct as external recognition grants effective title to territory, the reality is that certain states may condition recognition of new States on criteria which is beyond that stipulated by the Declarative theory.
However, what about when not all States recognize the entity as a State, is the entity therefore left with partial statehood? There are two theoretical justifications for the Kurdish nation to secede from its current state, the first is the Nationalist metanarrative based on the view that a nation has an entitlement to territory based on historical claims. This is based on the idea that a nation is a group of individuals with collective cultural characteristics including language, traditions and a desire for political self-determination Stilz, A strength of this argument is that it provides an explanation as to why a particular group of people should govern over a particular territory.
This pertains to the Kurdish nation, one of the earliest references we have of the Kurds, appears in Anabasis by Xenophon, written in BC. In the face of recurring and grave injustices, a persecuted minority group can turn to the notion of secession as a last resort which makes it a derivative right rather than a primary one. A strength of this argument is that it provides an incentive to states to act in a just manner, as those whom uphold the basic human rights of their citizens are immune to instances of unilateral secession based upon legal justifications.
This stipulates that any state which is the victim of an unjust secessionist movement is entitled to the support of the international community in maintaining their sovereignty and territorial integrity. While there are arguably a few successful examples of this within mainland Europe Belgium and Switzerland , this has not been imitated in the Middle East, the modern history of the Republic of Iraq since its inception in provides a great deal of evidence against the notion.
The following is an infamous statement by the first monarch of the Iraqi state, King Faisal I, thirteen years into his rule. There is a degree of acknowledgment on behalf of Stilz in regards to the importance of cultural and lingual ties in fostering strong bonds but this does necessarily translate into the capabilities of forming a sustainable political authority.
She claims that territorial jurisdiction can only be granted to groups which have demonstrated the ability to guarantee freedom for their citizens. This applies to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq as it has had the opportunity to do this since it gained semi-autonomy in The result of the state-building pursued since then will be critically analyzed in the following chapter to determine whether the conditions set out by Stilz have been met.
The only form of profound constitutional change which can put an end to the plight of the Kurdish people would be secession, a process of usurping sovereignty from the illegitimate state and handing it to the persecuted minority. A final theoretical argument in favor of Kurdish statehood, derives from the work of Theologian John Mill whom discussed the idea of representative government at length, he asserted that mono-national states allow for democracy to flourish.
This contributes to the understanding of why the artificial post-colonial state of Iraq has continuously failed to implement free and fair democracy, representative of all demographics. A state which lacks homogeneity is likely to lack solidarity, trust and shared which are basic precipitants of democracy.
Ultimately, ethnic groups achieve success through self-governance and the Kurds would be no different. The aforementioned theoretical frameworks provide justifications and support for the creation of an independent Kurdish state. The economy in the Kurdistan Region has undergone a transformation starting from the post period where it was arguably one of the most underdeveloped and deprived economic regions within the Iraqi state to what is currently viewed as the most economically successful.
This was particularly devastating because the United Nations imposed their own sanctions on Iraq, so effectively the Kurdistan Region by being a section of the Iraqi state was the hardest hit during this period of time. The KRG had to establish institutions to run an economy which was starting right at the bottom, the only source of income at this point was the humanitarian aid received from institutions such as the European Union and more importantly the United Nations.
The situation was exacerbated by the short-lived civil war from between the KDP and PUK, due to political differences and the situation looked bleak after years of conflict, refugee movement and no modern experience of self-government. The Kurds were dealt a respite in with the introduction of the oil-for-food program on the basis that sanctions were only impacting regular citizens in Iraq and not the regime.
The program was reluctantly agreed to by the Iraqi regime and provided short-term assistance to the nation-state as a whole. The region declined to use the new Saddam-print Dinar which was printed at very high levels leading to inflation and devaluation. This meant that in comparison to the rest of the country the Kurdish region had a stable currency.
The economic situation in the Kurdistan region greatly improved post invasion, this was codified in the Iraqi constitution. This allowed the regional government a degree of autonomy in managing its own natural resources in joint co-ordination with the central government.
The region started to attract the attention of outside markets and subsequently built pipelines such as the mile-long pipeline stretching from Kirkuk to Ceyhan, capable of exporting a maximum of 1. This has been a result of improved relations with historical enemies such as Turkey and Iran, culminating in the signing of several trade deals as they realized the economic potential of the region.
International Business Publications, These disputed territories lie outside of the official boundaries of the Kurdistan Region but are claimed by the KRG due to the presence of ethnic Kurds on those given territories based on historical claims. A pre-cursor to determining whether these territories should be administered by the KRG or the government in Baghdad is the execution of referendums, providing citizens with a democratic means of settling their futures.
There is also the inefficient hydrocarbons law passed in , while the law was initially intended as a resolution to the issues plaguing the natural resources, it has in- fact added to the rifts between the regional and central government. The lack of clarity surrounding who has ultimate authority over the resources based in the Kurdistan Region has led to the central government classifying deals signed between the KRG and international companies as illegal.
The government in Baghdad has gone as far as to threaten to sue companies who deal independently with the KRG. Oil Price, The Economist Intelligence Unit produced a report in , they ranked the Iraqi Kurdistan in regards to political stability and security as the fifth highest in the region, placing it ahead of Israel while on a more international level it was placed 83rd, on a par with China.
The report also produced results based on positive business environment and the results were even more favorable, placing 57th ahead of Russia Field, In similar fashion to many governments particularly in the Middle East, the Kurdistan Region does suffer from corruption. However, Kurdish citizens were able to demonstrate their opposition to corruption through democratic elections, in the Iraqi Kurdistan legislative elections the virtual duopoly of the KDP and PUK was ended by the strong showing of the anti-corruption Gorran Party led by Nawshiran Mustafa.
In an unprecedented showing of democracy, virtually unseen in the region due to the duopolistic nature of Kurdish politics, the Gorran party gained 24 seats in parliament compared to 18 by the PUK, even defeating them in their Slemani stronghold. The rise of Gorran by no means shows that corruption in Kurdistan has been eradicated but has certainly been a positive advancement for the Kurdish political arena.
This will be a reduction of 2. Furthermore, the KRG has sought to further address the issue of dependency by seeking new platforms to raise finance. The field of energy policy has also proven too lax, a kilowatt of electricity is only 3 cents, a paltry sum compared to Turkey where it is 30 cents.
The state of the economy at this moment in time is not sufficiently stable enough to support independence. The KRG must continue to utilize its natural resources as oil prices steadily climb, the relationship with Turkey will continue to serve as a gateway to European markets. To reach such a stage the Kurds need to first reach a unified front and establish a realistic mandate with which to present Baghdad with. Aside from the seat parliament in the Kurdistan Region, Kurdish parties also occupy 62 out of the seats in the central Iraqi Figure 3 - Map of territorial control in Iraq with Kurdish control marked in lime green.
The current political climate in the Kurdistan Region is tense due to the precarious situation surrounding the Presidency. However, this extension expired in August and still Barzani has remained, serving the 11th year of an 8-year term. The goal of all the political parties is ultimately independence and this has been seen recently as plans have been set to hold a referendum on Independence in The descendants of persecuted ethnic groups within Iraq, mainly the Kurds, are to this day not incorporated into the Iraqi state, rather they are second-class citizens and therefore have an outstanding occupancy claim.
The Iraqi state perpetrated a grave injustice upon the Kurdish population and subsequently failed to claim responsibility and therefore does not exercise jurisdiction which is of benefit to all of its citizens. As the KRG seeks independence it cannot leave itself susceptible to independence calls from other minority groups. A call for a Yezidi or Assyrian nation-state or even autonomous zone independence of the KRG would have direct negative consequences.
A sense of shared ownership of a country and its government by all of the citizenry including minorities contributes to nation-building and staves off internal rifts, this has catastrophically failed in Iraq whereby the effects are arguably irreversible. Since then relations have improved with the official army of the Kurdistan region the Peshmerga, whom have aided Iraqi armed forces in encircling Mosul.
The Prime Minister discussed how it was objections from regional powers which would provide the biggest obstacle to Kurdish ambitions, this alludes to the weakness of Iraq in directly opposing Kurdish aspirations. Turkey has historically espoused for a strong unified central government governed in Baghdad, however this changed with the increase of Iranian influence over the government in Baghdad due to mutual Shia affinity.
However, as the KRG inches itself closer towards independence the uneasiness of Turkey has become more apparent. This has been aggravated by two further decisions, firstly KRG officials made it known in the presence of UN Secretary-General Antonio Gutteres that there would be an independence referendum in the near future and then when the Kirkuk Provincial Council voted to hold a referendum on the annexation of the city by the KRG.
The political language that has surfaced from Ankara suggests that Turkey is not ready to accept Kurdish independence despite increase economic and security cooperation over the last decade. There are also historical grievances with both Greece and Israel which suggest that under all the anti-Kurdish statements is an acceptance that the establishment of one Kurdish homeland within the boundaries of Iraq could spell the end of nationalist aspirations within Turkey as ethnic Kurds could no longer claim to not have their own nation-state.
What remains pivotal to Kurdish aspirations is the need for the matter of Independence to not be settled on the battlefield, any further actions on the referendum issue must be done in collaboration with the Turkish regime. The US is reluctant to involve itself in anymore conflicts in the region and would perhaps reluctantly support the decision of their main regional ally. The facts on the ground are that President Erdogan has now won the Yes vote in the Turkish referendum to abolish the post of Prime Minister and turn the Turkish political system into an executive presidency.
It is without a doubt that the alternatives i. This stems from the presence of Turkish military bases located within the Kurdistan Region, the biggest and most important of which is situated just 12km from Mosul in the town of Bashiqa. The central government in Baghdad has classified Turkish presence as a foreign incursion, and raised the matter with the United nations to no avail.
Turkey has admitted to training Peshmerga forces and has worked to facilitate coordination between them and the Arab Sunni forces of Hashd Al-Watani. However, does Barzani need the support of Kurds in Turkey or Syria? However, this does not suggest that a rapprochement between the Kurds and federal authorities in Baghdad is imminent. If unaddressed, a prolonged state of economic crisis and budget deficits will also add more strain on the ability of the Kurdistan Regional Government K.
Since the ratification of the new Iraqi constitution in , the K. But this started to change when in November K. Prime Minister. Nechirvan Barzani signed a "strategic" deal  with neighboring Turkey to export Kurdish oil and gas to that country for the next 50 years. Although the deal was meant to cement Iraqi Kurdistan's position as a major energy exporter and assist its economic independence, the move backfired as Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki retaliated by suspending the K.
Pressed hard for cash, the K. But fluctuating levels of oil production coupled with a dramatic drop in oil prices starting in Summer meant that the K. By the end of , the K. Faced with grim economic and financial prospects, the K. The government has come under heavy criticism for not articulating a clear vision for serious reforms beyond the strict austerity measures it has introduced.
As a result of the economic crisis, much of Iraqi Kurdistan's public sector is now paralyzed as many government institutions, including at times the health and education sectors, have gone on strike. The situation is particularly acute in Sulaimaniyah province and the nearby Garmiyan area where anti-establishment sentiments are stronger. Struggling to pay its dues, the K. The K. The current times of low oil revenue has, thus, exposed the K.
As a result, Iraqi Kurdistan was largely transformed into a consumerist, government-reliant society that had to massively import its basic food items and other essential goods. In addition to failing to prioritize economic investment, the K. The lucrative budget it received from Baghdad went mostly into paying the vast public sector that developed out of an unhealthy competition between the two major K. Despite much ado about building a capitalist, free-market economy, the government failed to ensure fair competition in the various sectors of the market.
The Kurdish private sector and key businesses such as telecom, energy and trade are monopolized by those with connections to the ruling political elite, mostly from the two dominant parties. Popular protests have been intermittent over the past few months as a result, and in some cases, offices of political parties have been attacked.
Deep political divisions and the desire of the ruling elite to preserve their interests make any popular push for structural economic reforms difficult. However, failure to enact meaningful reforms that address the grievances of the population, especially young Kurds, will continue to undermine the K. The deteriorating economic conditions in Iraqi Kurdistan will likely restrict the K.
Voices opposing Kurdish independence have been also rising on the international arena, with German and E. Struggling hard to pay people on its payroll and under heavy debt, it is difficult to foresee how the K. None of the neighboring countries of Iraqi Kurdistan have voiced support for Kurdish statehood. Although many might pin their hopes on the region's oil exports, the government's levels of production are far behind declared targets.
Iraqi Kurdish oil is believed to be sold at rates lower than the Iraqi national oil largely due to risks associated with purchasing it. Oil exports have been currently on hold for several weeks due to an act of sabotage against the pipeline, costing the K. The major proponent for the push toward statehood is the K. He has called for a referendum to be held, but cautioned that it will not mean immediate independence.
Facing Callahan's Point and into the Canyons, a small tunnel could be found, full of ice and swinging axes. Through these hazards, a ladder led up into the Keep's interior, where players could enter the arena or climb a spiral staircase to the Throne and Present Rooms. Polar Bears wandered the Canyons: one spawned near the pair of disconnected guard towers across the tunnel; and one defended the rear gate, above the Lake Cave; and one lurked in the darkness in the Raider Canyons Mine.
Krampus sat idle within his Keep, with two Evil Snowmen guarding him, armed with magical Volcanic Rifles. The event offers two paths and reward sets to be fought for during the Frozen Days. Join forces with Krampus and become his little helper! For Outlaws protecting Krampus, they have the simple task of killing the pesky do-gooders who try and harm him. Help Santa get back his presents!
Kill Krampus and anyone who stands at his side for a chance at Nice Tokens! These can be redeemed for loot at Santa's Gift Shop. For Citizens, it's a bit tougher. Krampus has more health than the Legendary Skeleton did, and can spawn multiple ice crystals which heal him. He also has Evil Snowmen minions which spawn throughout the fight, when the crystals are active, as well as any Outlaws who have come in search of Naughty Tokens. Krampus' powers had altered the region, the area covered in snow, the adobe replaced with a blue stone, similar to the rest of the Canyons.
The currency used to buy wares in Krampus' Contraband was Naughty Tokens, not money. The mine operations had been hijacked; the equipment now pushed presents through and some of the minecarts were with sleighs. The gift shop was guarded by Elves , who were more than willing to shoot Outlaws dead with their cannons.
The Wild West Wiki Explore. Animal Information Legendary Animals. Pickaxes Ores Mining Locations. Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? Christmas Frozen Days. View source. History Talk 0.
The present that everyone received. Its color depended on the color of the user's chat tag. The message given to staff members who opened the Starboard Studios present. A Christmas tree at the entrance to the Copper Gulch mining complex. A purple aurora suspended over the Workshop and Gift Shop. Categories : Events Christmas Event. Universal Conquest Wiki. Naughty Side Join forces with Krampus and become his little helper!
Nice Side Help Santa get back his presents! Anyone who had dealt enough damage during the fight received a notice when Krampus is defeated, and gained 10 Nice Tokens. Players who had dealt enough damage and did not already own this rifle unlock it upon Krampus' defeat.
A reskin of the Volcanic Rifle , which did double damage to Evil Snowmen. Does not drop on death. A present stolen from Santa by Krampus. Fried Dover sole with rice, butter and sugar. Jan Kendzierski. Sales manager. Baked cod with onion and red pepper, black olives and stewed potatoes. Arjan van Eerde. Cod fillets in mushroomsauce from the oven..
Marc Lauber. Maarten van de Beek. Cornelis Kaptein. Inside Sales. Maria Vasilieva. Inside Sales Russia. Tiemen Ras. Quality manager. Cod from the frying pan with asparagus and buttersauce.. Lubbert Kramer. Stock Controller.
Stewed thick plaice.. Jan Jacob Snoek. Salmon smoked by my father, warm out of the smoking barrel. Kobus Bos. Marike Brands. Eel cleaned by my father! Salt and pepper on the bottom of the pan, put the eel in the pan, again salt and pepper. Fill the pan with half water and half vinegar. A slight cook and enjoy!
Our ability to offer fresh chicken, rather than frozen imports, allows us to form corporate partnerships with companies that demand high. With the advent of the Islamic State (ISIS), drastically reduced oil prices, and a freeze on funds from the central government of Iraq. South Ossetia and Abkhazia were two of the four so-called frozen conflicts bulv.shelu.xyz