A wall, mound or other structure constructed in the sea to break the force of waves in order to protect a natural or artificial harbour or beach from the action of waves. Solid masonry units of clay, kneaded, moulded and baked by the sun or by fire in a kiln, used in building and paving. Bricks can be produced from sand and cement or sand and lime.
The process of laying brick in any type of masonry, filling all joints, cleaning, grouting and pointing, and waterproofing. A structure spanning a river or other depression or connecting two points which are at a height above. An estimate of income and expenditures arising from a plan for attaining a specific objective within a defined period of time. A strip of land established between two incompatible land-use zones which serves to separate them and to diminish the adverse effects e.
An independent, enclosed and permanent structure covered by a roof and enclosed with external walls. An organization that accumulates funds by subscriptions and savings from its members for on-lending by lending the money they need for building or purchasing their dwellings at preferential terms. Building material, such as chipboard, fibreboard, corkboard, wood panelling, gypsum or wood slab, used as a finished surface. Regulations made by local authorities to control the construction and erection of buildings.
See also: Building code. Ordinances and regulations controlling the design, construction, materials, alteration and occupancy of any structure, for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. Code includes technical standards for electrical, heating, plumbing and sanitary work. Elements of a building such as doors, windows, sanitary units, heating equipment, elevators, lighting.
One who contracts to furnish supplies, to construct or to perform any work or service in a building. A cooperative which lasts only until the houses are constructed and titles of the houses transferred to individual members.
A classification based on duration. A building cooperative may also have non-residential structures as its aim, e. The ratio of the area covered by buildings to the total area of a given unit of land, or of the total floor area of a building to the net site area. Parts of a building such as walls, floors, ceilings, chimneys, foundations, ramps, roofs and stairs.
Manual - or power - driven equipment for hoisting, excavating, hauling, grading, paving, drilling or pile-driving, as well as for carpentry, masonry, plumbing, wiring and interior mechanical work. All businesses and activities that share in the receipts of construction expenditures, including builders, manufacturers and specialist subcontractors.
Person legally authorized to inspect work at design and construction stages for conformity with the building code, to examine and inspect the structural soundness of a building and its conformity to specifications. Land which is conveniently located in relation to existing built-up areas and is suitable for building, with subsoil of adequate load-bearing capacity, gradients which are not too steep, and owners who wish to use, sell or lease it for building.
Limit prescribed by building codes, bye - laws or regulations to establish boundaries for the area occupied by a building or to define limits beyond which the building may not project. All natural and artificial materials used in construction, e. Official document issued by the appropriate government agency, authorizing implementation of construction project in accordance with approved drawings and specifications.
The body of knowledge of physical principles that affect the design and structure of buildings and the behaviour of materials and structures in response to noise, heat, sun, radiation, humidity, air and pollutants in the atmosphere. Laws, bye-laws, statutes or regulations which govern the design and construction of buildings, the type of materials to be used for fire and structural safety, provisions for sanitation and access, and operation, occupancy and use of said buildings.
The reconstruction of a complete building or major parts of it with or without regard to the preservation of architectural features. Includes bibliographical search, testing, evaluation, analysis, experimentation and pilot construction for purposes of developing, adapting and improving building materials and techniques, designs, standards, energy use, labour productivity, building economics etc. The reconstruction of a complete building or major parts of it to its original appearance.
Limitations on the erection of structures, varying from complete prohibition to restrictions on style, cost, materials, height, position on lot, and use. The right to construct a building on a specified plot of land. Building rights may be withheld where regulations prohibit construction. A lot, tract or parcel of land suitable for building or on which a building may be erected, including all surrounding land allocated to the building.
A housing-finance institution. A self-help mutual association which mobilizes domestic and corporate logement funds to finance homeownership on a full cost-recovery basis. Detailed, itemized description of dimensions, plans, materials and other requirements, such as construction equipment, quality of work, performance and installation procedures which are part of the contract documents of a proposed construction project.
Standards of health, safety, occupancy and size under which buildings are considered fit for habitation or economic or social activity. They also provide guidelines for structural engineers for design and structural analysis of buildings. An assembly of integrated building components.
Design and construction of various structures to withstand physical forces or displacement without danger of collapse or damage and without reduction in function or serviceability. See: Structural engineering. That portion of land within a land-use zone in which buildings are permitted or required. An area in which buildings or other structures canals, pylons etc. That part of the environment which is predominantly constructed, as distinguished from the natural environment.
Features built as an integral, permanent part of a building, e. An urban area. An area which has been extensively developed, with 50 per cent or more of the land improved with buildings and accompanying infrastructure. At per cent developed, an area gives the impression of being substantially developed.
Zoning measure that limits the size of buildings within a zone by restricting the height, density, location, floor area and overall shape of the building in relation to the plot area and width of the surrounding streets. A tractor that carries a wide, heavy metal blade called a dozer mounted in front, used for earth moving, excavation, road grading, building demolition and land clearing.
Includes banks, brokerage houses, insurance offices, professional services, secretarial and data-processing services. A road or loop joined to a major road which takes traffic around a built-up are a to facilitate movement bretelle de of through traffic and minimizes congestion. Large-scale map showing the boundaries of sub- divisions of land and areas of individual tracts for purposes of recording ownership.
An official inventory of boundaries, value and ownership of real estate made for title recording or transfer, to define the legal limitations of title, or for determining property taxes. Public register in which the general survey, dimensions, elevations, value and ownership of real property are recorded.
The personal resources and abilities of the members of a group to help themselves. Assets of a permanent nature used in the production of income, e. An annual budgetary statement of proposed public expenditures for facilities and infrastructure together with plans for financing them.
The seat of government of a country, region, province or district, generally its chief city. Machinery and devices used in the production process of a company and considered a fixed asset. Machines that make machines. Money spent on fixed assets, e. See also: Capital outlay. A gain realized on the sale of capital assets, i.
An appreciation in value over a period of time. Of a process or production or economic activity. Having relatively greater plant and equipment costs than lab our costs. See: lab our intensity. Direct expenditure for purchase of buildings, plant, equipment and services, required for promoting an enterprise. See: Capital expenditure. The equity and debt securities of a business together with its surplus and reserves. The rate of interest paid on the capital employed in a business.
Since capital will be usually drawn from a variety of sources it will be an average cost derived from weighting the cost of each source, including equity capital, proportionately. Technology that requires plant and equipment input far in excess of lab our input. Expenses charged to a capital asset account which would appear on the current profit and loss statement.
Building trade which includes cutting, framing and joining the woodwork of a building. A detailed analysis of a portion of some aspect of a project. An account of events and factors of interest relating to a particular sector. Net earnings of a venture, determined by deducting expenses from income. This should be positive in order to confer sustainability. Work done at its permanent location, not precast.
Refers to concrete, concrete pile, form-work and reinforcement work. Employment at irregular and uncertain times, for a short time, for limited and temporary purpose, and without seniority rights or fringe benefits. Drainage basin of a river system or collection area for precipitation.
A low-lying area which accumulates and holds water from adjacent areas, or a hilly area from which water drains either naturally or artificially to a river or reservoir. Area from which institutions draw their active members and shopping or cultural centres draw their customers. Places from which people travel to use facilities in a given location. Surrounding areas falling under the influence of an urban centre.
A pit placed at the top of a slope to catch water before it flows down the slope. A building material made by burning limestone in a kiln sometimes mixed with clay or shale, silica, gypsum and other substances and ground finely to form a grey powder which when mixed with water will harden and act as a binder to form a hard, smooth, rock-like mass. Official enumeration of a country's population. Population census include statistics relating to physical, social and economic conditions, age groups, sex or data relating to income, health, education, housing, agriculture or industry.
Essential to policy planning. The business core of a city, the downtown area, with the major concentration of retail, office and service functions, which serves as the city's principal magnet, with convergence of transport and communication lines and highest land value. The concentration of decision-making authority or power in a central organization or government. Document issued by a designated authority attesting that plans meet applicable codes and regulations, or that work has been carried out according to the arrangements forming the basis of the administrative agreement for the building permit.
A pit, well or other underground container. Often perforated and brick lined, connected to plumbing as a receptacle for sewage, that allows the effluent to seep into the surrounding soil but retains the solids of sludge. Watercourse with a definite bed and banks which confine and conduct the normal continuous or intermittent flow of water. A series of questions, observations or instructions to be followed in particular circumstances.
Used for example, in supervision of some self-help construction projects. A safety device, fuse or manual mechanical switch which is placed in an electric circuit, designed to open the circuit automatically on a pre-determined overload of current and prevent overheating due to overloading.
A highway which encircles an urban area, enabling traffic to go partially or entirely around the area without passing through the town centre. A major population centre providing a range of urban services within the municipal boundaries and sometimes to the suburban fringe.
Definition in terms of population varies widely among countries. The process of guiding and shaping the expansion of a community in a continuing, cumulative and organized manner and layout following a survey of requirements, with short- and long-range projections and provision for implementation and evaluation. The design and supervision of public works such as construction of roads and bridges, grading, drainage and sewerage, water supply and structural design and construction of buildings.
Includes earthmoving, excavation, grading, environmental and sanitary engineering. A concept which denotes different sections or divisions of society regarded as a unit due to common occupational or other social characteristics. A fine-grained earth with high plasticity when wet that can be moulded in moist conditions and become hard and weather-resistant when burned in a kiln.
Used in building materials such as bricks and tiles as well as the pottery and ceramic industry. A type of soil containing a large proportion of clay which expands when wet and shrinks when dry. Site to be cleared by local authorities by demolition of buildings so that it can be rebuilt afresh under an urban renewal programme. In a wooded area, cutting down trees and removing their stumps in preparation for construction or pavement. Owner of a project.
Person commissioning building work. Person or organization to whom or to which a contractor or firm supplies a service or product. The meteorological study of climate and of the practical effects of climatic change on the environment. Grouping or clustering of housing units in a high- density housing project with open areas such as parks, green belts and common spaces. Planning device which permits development of a residential area to prescribed density by grouping houses in close proximity around cul-de-sacs or courts in order to take advantage of site resources and provide green spaces and a sense of community.
Protection, development and management of land and water resources of estuarine and coastal zones. Thin film of material applied to the surface of other materials as a corrosion preventive, colour paint or waterproofing. A horizontal wooden framing member connecting opposite roof rafters, usually spaced every third or fourth rafter, and used to strengthen the rafter system or stiffen the roof structure.
Any marketable movable or immovable property which a borrower pledges as security for a mortgage or loan. Real or personal property or securities provided by a borrower to a lender to guarantee repayment of a loan. Housing in which some facilities, e. Structure used for the manufacture, sale, resale, processing, displaying, handling, storing or distribution of goods or used for business or professional services.
Shops, retail establishments and other commercial elements conceived with a view to satisfying the shopping needs of a given population. A physical area generally within an urban settlement in which commercial activities are carried on, such as a shopping centre, a market place or a high density of office buildings. A geographical area from which a particular type of raw material or primary product is available.
Those elements of collective housing which are shared by a group of households, e. Management of infectious diseases through immunization programmes, water and sewage treatment, hygiene and nutrition education. Infectious diseases transmitted from one source to another either directly or via a vector. The transfer of information, ideas, facts, wishes, attitudes or emotions from one person to another, or from a source to a receiver, primarily through symbols.
The process involves encoding, transmission, decoding, use of and reaction to a message. Means of transmission of information such as books, newspapers, radio, television, sound recordings, video recordings, exhibitions, telecommunications. A concentrated, identifiable group of people who live and work in close proximity and form a self-conscious social unit, having a sense of common identity and common interests, satisfying daily needs through a system of interdependent relationships.
A neighbourhood building owned and operated by a public or non-profit agency for social, cultural, educational and recreational activities and as a facility for organizing community participation in the neighbourhood planning process.
Process by which residents develop awareness of and assume responsibility for community problems and mobilize their physical, social, human, financial and other resources toward the improvement of their community with their active participation. A professional who assists a community to become receptive to development and to utilize its own resources for self-help projects, and who serves as a link between the community and the technical and professional resources available to its members.
Grounds, buildings, equipment and services, including social halls, playgrounds, and parks, to provide for the social, cultural and recreational needs of the people within a community. Facilities used in common by a number of people, often publicly owned, e. The functional organization of a community, i. The active role of a local community in planning and implementation of community development and improvement programmes beneficial to the whole group.
The voluntary involvement of people in making and implementing all decisions directly affecting their lives. The activities undertaken by low-income households, with or without outside assistance, to improve their living conditions. Planning at neighbourhood level with special attention to provision of facilities for improvement of the daily life of residents.
Most directly involves public participation and special attention to needs of women, children, the elderly and handicapped. Daily travel between place of residence in one settlement and place of employment in another. See: Rush hour. One who regularly travels some distance back and forth between place of residence in one settlement and place of employment in another.
An urban phenomenon linking residential suburbs to city business centres. Payment of fair market price to an owner of land or buildings when a government body takes the property for a public purpose or when the value is depreciated by the effect of a public action. See: Compulsory purchase, Eminent domain, Expropriation. Bids which are submitted as the result of public notice or advertising for an intended action.
Written certification indicating that a construction project is complete and meets contract requirements. A prefabricated building consisting of structural elements such as walls, floors, beams, columns, or trusses delivered to a construction site for assembly. A built-up beam composed of two or more members with different physical characteristics.
A controlled process of decomposition of organic wastes, which may include excreta, to produce soil fertilizer. Formal approach to urban and land-use planning that is inter-sectoral, acknowledges all aspects of development physical, social and economic , utilizes interdisciplinary expertise and is carried out on a national, regional or local level.
Official order for acquisition or expropriation of private property for public use or benefit, upon payment of fair and just compensation. See: Compensation, Expropriation, Eminent domain. An automatic electronic device capable of high- speed calculation of complex and logical operations, manipulation or transformation of data using information and instructions it receives, stores and is able to retrieve, to obtain a desired output.
A computer program used for a particular kind of work such as word processing or database management. Computer programs, procedures, rules and any associated documentation concerned with the operations of a data-processing system. Data that instruct a computer to perform assigned tasks. Art of instructions to computer, issued in a programming language that the computer understands, that are used by the computer to perform assigned tasks.
The density pattern of population settlement as an outcome of a process in which individuals tend to settle in increasing numbers in a specific area. The gathering of owner-supplied programme information and the assembling of base map and site information during visits to the site and conferences with the owner. An action that has been planned, arranged adjusted, agreed upon and settled between parties acting together by mutual agreement pursuant to some design or scheme. A mixture of cement, sand and gravel to which water is added, which reacts chemically by a process called hydration and binds the sand and gravel into a solid mass.
A machine with a rotating drum to which all raw materials in concrete mix proportions are introduced and then discharged after proper mixing, by tilting the drum to allow the mix to pour out. Property legally declared unfit for use or occupancy because it does not meet code requirements and should be upgraded, boarded up or demolished. Condemned property may be acquired for public use by declaration of eminent domain.
Land use tentatively approved by a zoning bye-law provided applicant satisfied stated standards, or permitted after review of the planning authority and subject to specified conditions and limitations. A multi-family dwelling in which each unit is individually owned but the land and common areas and facilities are owned and maintained by all owners on a pro-rated share basis. The seizure of private land or buildings by government without compensation to the owner, for a public purpose or to halt abuses connected with the existing land use.
Highly concentrated use of space, overcrowding with people, vehicles and buildings, thus overloading public services, impeding movement and threatening health and safety. Making people aware of social, political and economic realities as a prerequisite for social and political action. See: Public awareness. Term used in some countries, e. Planned use and management of natural and constructed resources. Preservation of buildings in a safe and sound state.
Prevention of further deterioration in a declining area through enforcement of codes and maintenance of ageing structures. An area containing a group of buildings of special architectural or historical significance, as designated by the local authority, which is protected against development or redevelopment detrimental to its historic value.
Wise use and management of all resources, both natural and artificial, in such manner as to prevent their unnecessary waste, through careful planning to meet the long-term needs of humanity. Creation, renovation, repair of structures, involving architecture, engineering, planning and management. All on-site work done in buildings, e. Planning, management, finance and skills related to construction of buildings.
See also: Construction industry. Machinery necessary in the construction industry, e. Encompasses all aspects of the process of construction, including professional and trade groups, bidding and contractual procedures, labour, finance and all parties engaged in designing, executing and maintaining structures and supplying the materials.
Creation of conditions to coordinate activities and bring about the optimum use of resources, labour, methods, materials and finance in construction through emphasis on time and cost limitations, consequences of design and decisions from bid packaging to project completion.
Protection of workers on a construction site from accidents and safety measures for temporary structures such as scaffolding and walls of adjoining buildings. An outside expert engaged on a temporary basis by a government or private organization to provide specialized technical advice or services. For a construction project, professional consulting services complement the architect or engineer's services.
One qualified and authorized by regulatory authorities to design and supervise engineering works. Amount designated to cover unforeseen items during the execution of a project, including changes in the work plan. An amount of up to 10 per cent of the estimated construction cost of a proposed project for contingencies encountered during construction. Legally binding written agreement between individuals, enterprises or a government department or agency an d the successful bidder or contracting organization, covering the performance of work, provision of lab our and materials and payment to be made.
The selling price of a property, less any mortgage to be assumed, plus the excess of liens collected in addition to seller's adjusted basis at time of sale. An individual or company offering construction services. Market in which there are government-established measures to regulate prices in order to create more stable market conditions and prevent inflation. A majority stock ownership in a corporation held by an individual or group which gives control over policy.
A complex settlement system, such as a megalopolis, or a continuous network of cities and towns that has developed spontaneously by the agglomeration of individual towns or urban centres. Housing constructed according to traditional designs, methods and materials for building in a given area.
A multiple dwelling complex in which each owner buys shares in the corporation that owns the building in order to have an interest in the entire complex and to lease, not own, an apartment. Housing built, operated or managed by non- governmental organizations for the purpose of providing non-profit-housing. A type of housing development owned jointly by all its residents, who are mutually responsible for its maintenance and operation.
The central or basic part of a dwelling, i. Housing unit consisting of only the basic structure, i. A light, thick, porous material harvested from the outer bark of the cork oak tree, used for sound insulation and flooring. A plan for linear urban expansion along transport corridors which are usually connected to other urban centres.
Amount which must be paid for property, goods or services, e. An analytical technique involving a monetary assessment of total costs and revenues for a project, with the object of identifying and quantifying as many tangible costs and benefits as possible. An analytic method whereby the actual and hidden costs of a proposed project are measured against the benefits to be received. The process of controlling the cost of a project within a predetermined sum throughout its various stages from inception to completion.
Economical in terms of tangible benefits produced by money spent, i. Determination of economies effected in terms of tangible benefits produced for the moneys spent. Actual expenditure for goods and services necessary to maintain a current standard of living for individuals or families.
Benchmark of current prices paid by consumers for goods and services with the cost of the same in the base year, used as a measure of inflation and purchasing power. The amount of money expended over and above budgeted costs for any item of a project, e. A method of keeping the cost of a project within a predetermined sum during the design process.
System of employment in which a craftsperson, aided by family members, works at home, either on own account or on behalf of entrepreneurs who deliver raw materials and collect finished goods. Effective solution to unemployment in rural areas. Growth area intended to provide an alternative attractive power to a major urban centre to help control its growth. Funds set up by a country receiving development assistance, in local currency and generally expected to match assistance received, either in cash or in kind.
Local personnel of a country attached to a technical assistance project who have the same role as, and complement the work of, international experts. Area outside cities and towns. A rural district or region. A tract or expanse of land. An open area adjacent to or within a house or building which might be enclosed and might contain accessory structures.
A break that does not cause separation into parts, e. The formation of thin hairline cracks on the surface of a concrete slab, caused by too rapid drying of the surface, shrinkage or creep of concrete. Person who practices an artisanal trade, e.
Skilled worker. Mobile or fixed in-place tower-crane machines equipped with hoists or pulleys to lift and move material. A loan to be repaid with interest, on an agreed basis and on terms specified by the lender. Evaluation of a potential borrower made by a a lender on the borrower's ability to repay a loan. Generally, the assessment is based on collateral available, and other criteria of loan history. Prevention methodologies such as police, court systems, penal institutions employed to deter behaviour that violates the criminal or penal law.
Arable land and land under permanent crops, i. Excessive density of people within a single shelter or groups of people within the urban environment, creating adverse conditions of physical and mental health. A dead-end street, lane or alley with an enlarged, somewhat circular area for turning round. Feature of suburban development planning because of noise protection and safety from through traffic. Building placed at the disposal of the community with a view to enhancing those activities which allow its members to have access to culture.
Modification in the civilization of a people, i. Establishments of historic, artistic or educational interest not operated commercially, e. A society's social, artistic and intellectual inheritance from the past.
Existing cultural assets, natural or constructed, such as historic and architectural landmarks, monuments, scenic assets, unique biological, concentrations etc. The social heritage of a community, including material artifacts, aesthetic perceptions, values, beliefs, accomplishments and behavior patterns created within that social context and transmitted from one generation to the next.
A pipe, conduit or similar passageway under a road, sidewalk or railway built of masonry, brickwork or concrete, to provide free flow of water or drainage. A sewer. A form of social behaviour well established in a society usually having persisted for a long time and become traditional, legitimate and formally recognized. D Multilingual glossary. A barrier constructed across a waterway to control the flow or raise the level of water for the purpose of irrigation or electricity generation.
The steps from data collection to production: assembly, classification, recording, calculating, analysis and reporting of information. Collection of related information files available under a multiplicity of aspects through computers.
An educational or custodial facility that provides care and supervision for infants and preschool children while their parents are at work. A social service for single-parent or two-working-parent families. A security device designed to increase burglar- resistance of exterior doors. The end of a horizontal dead bolt fits snugly into the jamb or may drop vertically, and can be locked and unlocked only with a key. A street or passage with a single common ingress and egress. See also: Cul-de-sac.
A bond not secured by specific property, backed only by the assets and credit of the issuing organization. Transfer of legislative, administrative or juridical powers from a central authority to regional or local authorities.
Spontaneous or planned movement of people or industries from an urban centre to outlying areas or secondary centres. See also: Deconcentration. Delegation, Devaluation, Debureaucratization. Planning in which decisions related to the general plan are made at lower administrative levels.
The logical procedures for evaluating options and choosing among them, especially regarding policies in government or business. A settlement characterized by a markedly hierarchical pattern around some central place. It may be the result of either planned or spontaneous movements of the population. Transfer of administrative and implementing responsibilities from central authority to lower level of government.
A type of mortgage which allows the payment of principal or interest to be postponed to an agreed future date. Cutting down and clearing away of trees, a process which has dire effects on fragile ecosystems, as in high mountain areas, islands and semi-arid regions, causing erosion, landslides and decreased agricultural productivity.
The proportion of the total population inhabiting areas classified as urban. Varies from country to country as designation of urban area varies. Transfer of administrative, decision-making and implementing responsibilities from higher to lower level of government. The study of human population statistics and characteristics, including records of births, deaths and marriages, population distribution and size, growth trends, household composition, and social data age, race, ethnic background, etc.
The portion of a development area occupied by structures in relation to the area occupied by large-scale open spaces. The number of persons per unit of land area, including the area covered by housing sites, local public facilities and the network of distributor roads and pedestrian paths.
A person who derives his or her main support from another who has an obligation to provide support. The non-working portion of the population, including the young, the elderly, the disabled and the unemployed, who must be supported by other individuals, by the government or by charitable institutions.
Reduction of the number of inhabitants of an area, usually as the result of one or more economic, social, environmental or government policy measures. Location to which people may return such items as newspapers, bottles, aluminium cans, etc. Loss of market value of real property resulting from age, use, physical deterioration, functional and economic obsolescence, or any other cause.
An area or region characterized by economic stagnation, a relative lack of industry and infrastructure, and a low growth rate, in which a substantial proportion of the population is unemployed, underemployed or lives at or near subsistence level. Land so damaged by industrial or other development as to be incapable of beneficial use without treatment.
Vacant land. The process of removing salts and other chemicals from seawater for human, industrial and agricultural use. The spread or pulling outward of deserts due to social and economic patterns incompatible with the region's environmental limitations. Formerly arable and settled land becomes degraded and inhospitable to human life. A plan, drawing, elevation, section or other graphic representation made as a guide or pattern for conceptualization and construction of buildings, neighbourhoods or cities.
Includes architectural and structural detail. Professional who prepares the design plan and specifications for a building project. A single-farnily dwelling that stands apart from others, with walls and roof independent of any other building. Distinguished from apartment, row house, duplex or attached dwelling. To construct houses or other buildings on land, and provide necessary infrastructure.
Land that has been equipped with basic infra- structural networks or other additions or improvements to enhance its value or usefulness. A person or company who develops real estate through improvement and land subdivision. An investor or company that conceives of a housing project, including its infrastructure, determines its conceptual use, organizes the design and construction services required for its completion and arranges the finance and sale of it.
An individual or company engaged in the development and improvement of land for construction purposes, as well as the construction of buildings and infrastructure on that land. Countries identified by the United Nations on the basis of seven indicators, including per capita gross domestic product, energy consumption and annual income, literacy rate, and life expectancy at birth.
More agricultural than industrial economy. The performance of building, engineering, mining or other operations on, over or under land, or material change in the use of any land or structure to improve the utility of land or property. Any and all undertakings necessary for a tract of previously underdeveloped land subdivided for housing including demolition, roads, water, electricity, sewer and construction.
Change in use of any land or structure to improve utilization. Aid given in support or furtherance of development includes fiscal, technical and training aspects of development assistance as well as equipment. An area suffering from severe unemployment to which government guides new industry to relieve congested areas and provide a more balanced economy with the country.
A financial institution set up specifically for mobilizing and channeling medium- and long- term capital into the private sector of a country's economy and development. In developing countries a form of economic planning for public-sector investments in light of available resources and social needs. Implementation requires support of government, participation of decision-makers and authority granted to planners. List of social, economic and physical objectives to be accomplished by means of development planning, together with the proposed schedule of tasks necessary to implement the programme.
Transfer of administrative, implementing and decision-making management and responsibilities and resources from higher to lower levels of government. Housing that has fallen into ruin or decay through neglect or misuse, too run-down to provide safe or adequate shelter, or so deteriorated that major repairs would be required to restore it to usable condition. Standards that relate to the height of buildings, width of roads, streets or paths, and width of green strips on highways. An alphabetical or classified list of names, addresses and other information about organizations or other groups of professionals, including affiliations, officers, functions and other data.
Person who has a physical impairment or defect which reduces the functional ability to lead a fruitful daily life and may cause temporary or permanent incapacity for work. See also: Handicapped. Lacking what is considered essential for a decent standard of living.
Any natural or man-made event causing much suffering, distress or loss, e. Precautionary measures to protect human life and property against natural calamities by means of legislation, regulatory measures and long-range programmes, principally in the fields of physical and urban planning, public works and construction. A state of readiness to cope with disasters by education of the population and organization for disaster situations, including preparation of operational plans, training of relief groups, stockpiling of supplies and earmarking of the necessary funds.
Areas in which there are natural phenomena readily susceptible to catastrophes, such as a high-density urban settlement on an earthquake fault line or a heavily settled floodplain area in which there is a history of poor land-management practices. An organized form of emergency measures which provides relief to victims, including distribution of food, supplies and equipment and provision of medical care, shelter, casualty and survivor information, and eventually rehabilitation.
Outward movement of people from inner areas to new towns or smaller settlements detached and at some distance from the built-up continuum. Personal income available for use - a measure of the propensity to expend, consume or save. A specific portion of a municipal area having its own special character. An area defined for a certain purpose, e. Supply of heat or hot water to buildings, houses, apartment buildings, offices and industrial premises in an urban area by the conducting of steam or hot water from a central source.
A long, narrow excavation or trench used as a boundary line or for draining wet land, irrigation or protection. The collecting, organization, storage, retrieval, analysis and dissemination of documents or information recorded in documents. Voluntary contribution or grant for which no valuable consideration is given in return. A movable barrier, hinged, sliding or rotating, that serves to close an entrance to a building or room.
Any means of entrance or exit. A suburban residential area or separate community often on the outskirts of a large city, from which a high percentage of residents travel to work in that city. The central area of activity in a city or town. See: Central business district CBD. To prepare a tentative, rough copy of a document for the purpose of discussion and revision before issuance of the final version.
A sketch, plan, drawing or design for a project. Early stage of preparation of the design and. Any pipe which carries wastewater. A trench or ditch to convey water from wet land for the purpose of drying it. An easement or servitude for draining water.
Removal of excess surface water run-off from land, roads and structures by a system of natural or artificial drains to prevent or alleviate flooding and preserve a supply of water. Potable water, pure enough for human consumption, Eau potable available from a fountain, well, water-supply network or other safe source within a reasonable distance from living accommodations. A metal pipe-like passageway for distributing warm air from the heating plant to rooms, outlets and other spaces.
A truck which dumps its load when its rear portion is tilted back by elevating the front, causing material to slide out the back. Consumer goods which yield services or utility over a long period of time, purchased for use over a long period.
Consumer's equivalent of a fixed asset, e. A room, suite or rooms, house, building or portion of a building intended exclusively for residential occupancy by one family. A structure or portion thereof used exclusively for human habitation. A self-contained residential unit for one family with its own access from a public place. A residential unit, either within a multi-unit structure or an independent construction, designed, occupied or intended for occupation by a single household.
Earth embankment or dam constructed to confine water or prevent flooding. Low wall of earth or stone to enclose land. E Multilingual glossary. The earnings an asset is expected to return at current price level, volume and profitability. A shaking or movement of a part of the Earth's surface caused by a sudden rupture inside the Earth's crust. Design and construction of structures in earthquake-prone areas emphasizing the use of bracing or other measures to minimize destruction and loss of life.
Building design and construction engineered to withstand earthquakes and thus to minimize destruction and loss of life. Action relating to excavation, embankment, moving, piling up, shaping or compacting of earth in construction projects. The right given an individual or public authority to make limited use of another's property, as the right to install or repair utility lines or to gain access to one's own land by passing through that of a neighbour.
The projecting lower edges of a pitched roof over- hanging the wall of a building. A form of planned growth that optimizes the use of locally-available resources within the constraints of the local environment. Economically sound development. The study of interrelationships of living organisms to one another and to their environment. Destruction of any one element of these complex interrelation-ships can cause environmental deterioration and adversely affect hum an settlements.
Generation and distribution of goods and services through activity of the three sectors of the economy: a primary exploitation of natural resources; b secondary manufacturing and the construction industry; c tertiary: commerce and tourism. The economic situation in an area in terms of equilibrium, growth or recession at a given time.
Cooperative measures in banking, trade, industry, etc. An increase in the capacity of a country to produce goods and services, coupled with an increase in production of these goods and services. Thus an increase in per capita real income. A set of economic factors, e. The activity of directing the development of the national economy on the basis of a balanced and coordinated plan relating to all sectors of the economy, e. The justifiable rent for a property, sufficient to cover the cost of total expenditures incurred by an owner, including cost of land, buildings, mortgage payments, repairs, maintenance, depreciation, utilities and services, and a reasonable profit.
The science that deals with the production, distribution and consumption of wealth and goods and the services which supply the needs of humanity. Its broad issues are price theory micro- economics and income theory macroeconomics. Factors that make a location attractive to a business or industry, such as proximity to markets, raw materials, ancillary services, cheap power or a trained labour force. Reduction of unit production costs resulting from an increase in production capacity. Production, distribution and consumption of wealth, assets and services.
The economic structure of a country. The system or interdependent complex of plant and animal populations within a particular geographic context, e. The drawing of maps which locate different kinds of plant cover in a geographic area. The process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills within an organized framework from teacher to student, from the earliest years to advanced professional training. Systematic instruction in schools or other educational facilities.
Process of developing the potential and personality of an individual in institutions of learning. Schools following secondary education: universities, colleges or specialized professional schools, e. Knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired through experience and contact with other people. Activities or programmes organized outside the framework of the established educational system but directed to definite educational objectives.
The first academic instruction, for children from the age of five to eleven years. Instruction of youth 12 to 18 years of age, whether as preparation for college or university studies or as the conclusion of formal education. Specialized education for specific careers, e. See also: Vocational training. Buildings and equipment used to satisfy teaching needs for all levels of education, including classrooms, laboratories, workshops. A waste liquid discharge from an industrial or treatment process in its natural state or partially or completely treated and discharged into the environment.
The science of human settlements, devoted to study of all types of settlement from the isolated and nomadic hut to the organized farmstead, village, small town, city, metropolis, megalopolis. Persons past late-middle age, usually not part of the economically-active population. The production and use of electricity for purposes of power and illumination in human settlements. The transmission of electric power to an area by means of lines, transformers, networks, etc.
The design of electric power distribution and lighting systems, including drawings and specifica- tions for incorporation into the building design. Energy carrier generated by electrical power stations which produces light and heat. Network consisting of overhead and underground conductors which link power stations to substations and ultimately to the consumers.
Grid is normally high voltage and network low voltage. The process of bringing electric power and illumination to an area in which it has not been previously available. A movable platform or cage and its hoisting machinery, used for carrying people and goods from one storey to another within a building.
A bank of earth to hold back water. An elevated constructed or natural deposit of soil, rock or other materials. Artifcial mound of earth or stone, usually constructed of filled-in material, used to carry railways and highways across low spots or to support a roadbed. Maintenance activities in response to serious defects posing potential or imminent danger.
Shelter to accommodate homeless families or refugees after major disasters such as foods, earthquakes or war. The right of a government to acquire private property for public use, provided that the owner is fairly compensated. See: Condemnation, Compensation, Compulsory purchase, Expropriation. Legal document specifying the maximum amount of a pollutant permitted to be discharged from a single source.
Any remunerative work, whether for an employer or for oneself. Recruitment and utilization of available labour. The creation or expansion of employment opportunities. May result in revitalization of depressed areas with low income levels and high unemployment rates.
The means by which employment opportunities are communicated to the economically active population. Act, statute or law authorizing an undertaking or project. Plan of action for shelter construction which involves utilization of locally available resources and promotion of increased activity by all relevant parties. Unauthorized extension of a structure on to the land of another owner, or unauthorized use of land for purposes other than specified in structure plan etc.
The capacity of a body to do work. It takes the forms of mechanical, radiant, electrical, chemical or nuclear energy. The exercise of public or private, voluntary or obligatory measures to curb consumption of energy resources. Increasing the efficiency with which energy is converted into useful work, primarily at the point of end use.
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The process of developing realistic goals and plans for utilizing energy resources, developing a supply system network and power generation and distribution facilities. Design of buildings and appliances incorporating energy-efficient principles and practices. The application of scientific principles to the design, construction and operation of efficient and economical structures, equipment and systems. A contractor who undertakes a construction project for an agreed price, who organizes production, finances the project and bears the risks involved.
The external milieu, natural or constructed, to which Environnement, an individual or group is responsive. The physical, chemical and biological agents and economic, social and cultural factors affecting living organisms and human activities. Deterioration of an are a caused by changes which reduce the general amenities of the area. Deterioration of one or many aspects of the environment, e. Negative net changes in the environment, resulting in conditions such as desertification.
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