African countries remain constrained from accumulating the necessary capital for auto-centric growth since the surplus is transferred overseas. Asymmetrical economic relationships are embodied by the continued supremacy of the core over Africa, something intrinsic to capitalism. Unequal exchange, the transfer of surplus, i. The process of gaining independence in Africa was accompanied by the intensified colonial liberation movements, elite struggle for power, and the formation of new state borders.
Having received formal sovereignty, African countries faced the challenge of building their own identity. However, most metropoles continued to actively intervene in the affairs of the former colonies under the pretext of assisting them in state-building, forming of the economic and military systems. Therefore, metropoles managed to subsequently control development process.
A new type of colonialism was launched, characterized by a low level of predictability and foresight. This trends mainly fit with neo-patrimonialism, which focuses on the legitimacy search and artificial statehood creation. The emergence of a new African political elite in the postcolonial period, formed at the expense of the army and senior military officials, was accompanied by the search for an effective development path and attempts to assure a fragile balance between tradition and modernization.
This served to aggravate economic, and then political dependence of African states on global economic institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. One of the key challenges of the postcolonial period in Africa is the blurring of borders and, as a consequence, the rise of ethno-religious problems. Attempts to resolve this kind of threats lead to the intervention of both intra-regional non-state actors and external powers.
The rise of the anti-colonial movement had a direct and visible impact on the international system in the s. The famous Brazilian diplomat and chancellor A. In his speeches, he firmly rejected the legitimacy of any type of colonialism, defended the need to accelerate decolonization, and heavily criticized the position of Portugal in Africa.
He sought rapprochement with African delegations, condemned apartheid, and emphasized the deep historical ties between Brazil and Africa. In , Brazil recognized the independence of former Portuguese colonies, developed relations with Black Africa, and condemned the apartheid regime in South Africa. It was the doctrinal concepts of A. The purpose of the mission was to elaborate constituent documents of the Union of African States, which the Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah sought to create.
Thus, Professor Vladimir Ya. Aboltin was tasked to design an economic program of the Union. He also proposed to industrialize Africa and to work out the intra-African infrastructure projects, as well as to develop Sahara gradually. The role of Africa as a geostrategically vital region is steadily growing. As a result, the states claiming to be significant actors in the world arena or important forces in the future world economy, increased their ideological, economic, and military—political expansion into this actively transforming region with a huge potential.
The coronavirus pandemic and the global economic crisis certainly added some new elements to the global and regional African strategies of the leading states. The new African strategies adopted by each of the four heavyweights of the global politics, as well as their economic, military, and strategic rivalry on and around the African continent should be compared in order to identify similarities and differences, irreconcilable contradictions, and possible constructive interactions.
In the context of the emerging global bipolarity, the strategies of the USA and China represent antagonistic programs based on fundamentally different initial messages. The Russian and EU African strategies are more passive and retroactive. The interests of those power centers are not intrinsically antagonistic, but having reconciled themselves to the role of the second in the bipolar combat formation, the two actors would not cooperate but rather snatch from each other the bits and pieces remaining from the scramble of the hegemons.
The current Russian strategies of economic development have been employing the opportunities given by engagement with Africa for the purposes of the recovery and diversification of the domestic manufacturing, the construction industry, the infrastructure, and the services sector to rather a very limited extent. Meanwhile, the African track opens a window of opportunity to restore and boost industries other than of primary sector in Russia, as well as to sharpen skills and upgrade mechanisms of penetration into highly competitive developed and transition economies.
This discourse presents Africa as an emerging global economic and political power. In particular, it explores the extent to which China has empowered different local actors and whether or not they have contributed to the diversification of local economies. Africa as a store-room of natural resources and the continent of intensive growth attracts the greater attention of China. The inclusion into Chinese projects gives Africa financial resources and opportunities to use them for the sake of sustainable development.
The strategic directions of interaction between China and Africa are theoretically justified. Beijing acts mainly as a donor and investor for the continent. China pays keen attention to the problems of African security as to the necessary condition of sustainable development.
Special attention is focused on the peculiarities of China-Africa cooperation in resolving the security and development problems of Africa. African conflicts and terrorism present a real threat for China, as Chinese companies often become a target. The objective analysis of China's interaction with African countries demonstrates the positive results of this interaction for Africa.
China-Africa contemporary cooperation contributes to resolving such key African problems as security and development. The Southern African Development Community countries are grappling with the complex problem of Chinese state and corporate involvement in divergent societies, politics, economies and ecologies.
There is enormous concern rising now about these relationships, in part because of the continuation of the new Cold War between Beijing and Washington, leaving Southern Africa torn, divided and subject to new forms of exploitation. But since then, the region has still suffered: from neo-colonialism, inter-imperial rivalries, sub-imperialism, neoliberalism, sustained patriarchy, resource-looting and now also the global climate meltdown and differential access to Covid treatment and vaccines.
Social activists often provide guidelines to help make these distinctions. For most of its history, China has been the center of the East Asian system of interstate relations. The foreign policy of both ancient and modern China is based on the principles of egocentrism and a global network of partnerships.
Particular attention has always been paid to the border countries surrounding China, from which a real threat to the existence of the state could come. Other countries—the farther they were from China, the less they were interested in it. In the twenty-first century, with the advent of Xi Jinping, China began to pursue the diplomacy of great power and put forward the principle of China's core national interests, as well as normative requirements for establishing and developing relations with other countries.
The priorities of China's foreign policy today look like this: the U. However, the U. Africa is more interested in China as a political ally—54 votes in the UN are an essential resource of Chinese diplomacy.
Africa continues to suffer from outbreaks of conflict, with evidence pointing to an increasing number of violent armed incidents. The establishment of the African Union AU heralded or so it was hoped a new era in how African conflicts are managed and resolved.
Whilst some of these peace support missions recorded successes in meeting their mandates, generally all of them faced or are facing a number of challenges including funding, and logistical inadequacies among others.
Peacekeeping and economic union are the two most important dimensions of African integration. The first section of this paper aims to analyse some current challenges to African peacekeeping, peacemaking, and African integration. The continuing Libyan civil war epitomizes the diplomatic stalemates and military stalemates which form the limits of current African peacekeeping.
The military intervention of states outside Africa can polarize conflicts and escalate civil wars. In parts of West Africa, states sub-contract peacemaking and anti-terrorist operations to unsupervised local militias, which are lawless at best, and commit ethnic killings at worst.
African integration fares better in the economic dimension. The historic track record of African continental organizations indicates that a decade will be a realistic minimum period for it to be substantially implemented. Severe difficulties can be predicted for future attempts to upgrade the AfCFTA into a continental customs union, and ultimately into a continental common market. Another major trend has been the growing role of regional organizations in the sphere of conflict prevention and resolution.
Africa remains the leading continent in terms of the number of countries affected by armed conflicts and post-conflict situations. He headed fixed income research for seven years there, and then became head of Sberbank Investment Research. His analyst team was recognized as the best one in Russia, according to Institutional Investor magazine in and in , and according to Extel in and in Alexander was named the best Russian analyst in Moreover, he is one of three analysts in the market who made it to Top-4 of the Institutional Investor All-Russia Survey over its entire history for over 10 years in a row ; he was ranked 1 in and He was named the best fixed income analyst in Russia in , according to Extel.
In —, held the office of an advisor to the Vice Governor of the Leningrad Region. Certified by the Federal Commission for Securities Market. In , he organized the Internet portal Cbonds. He has been CEO of Cbonds. He started publishing Cbonds Review magazine in and was its Editor-in-Chief in He is the author of Corporate Bonds: Global Experience and Russian Prospects and a number of articles on the securities market. Sergey Lyalin graduated from St.
Petersburg University, Department of Economics a diploma of economist - mathematician. Holds a PhD in Economics. In , he took a course in a business school in Cambridge Raising capital. Cambridge General Management Certificate. From to , he was a financial analyst in Renaissance Life Insurance Company. From to , he was head of investment ratings in Expert RA.
From to , he was head of corporate and investment ratings in Expert RA. In RAEX Expert RA , Pavel Mitrofanov is in charge of developing credit ratings of non-financial companies, countries, Russian regions, municipalities, management quality ratings, and also reliability ratings for asset managers, investment companies, and non-governmental pension funds, bonds, and depository financial strength creditworthiness ratings.
He is a member of the expert board of the Financial Elite of Russia Award and is on the award panel of Investor Awards. In , he was awarded a diploma in the Golden Pen nomination in the framework of the Trust contest held by the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation. In , he received the Audience Award in the framework of the Media Capital award. In , he participated in the NAPF working group for creating an industry standard of risk-management for non-governmental pension funds approved by the NAPF board in Andrei has extensive experience in advising international banks on Russian structured products, equity financings and cross-border derivatives transactions.
He also acted on a variety of significant capital markets transactions, including structured debt, equity and equity-linked products. He currently holds the position of chief economist at consulting company PF Capital. Evgeny began his career in as a consultant at the Economic Expert Group.
In , he moved to a newly created research organization - the Open Economy Institute - where he specialized in monetary policy. Yury specialize on primary capital markets transactions for top corporates and financial institutions. A graduate of the Art History Department of St. Petersburg State University, he became curator of 15th to 18th century French prints at the State Hermitage Museum in and researched history of the Imperial Print Room. In he received his PhD from St. Petersburg State University.
From , she worked in the FFMS of Russia dealing with oversight over record keeping infrastructure institutes. Since , she has been working in the Central Bank of Russia regulating issuance procedures and arranging securities admission to the financial market. She has two higher education degrees. He has various government awards, letters of commendation and acknowledgements. He wrote a number of articles on economics, finance and investments. He is a co-author of several books on economics and funding real estate development and investment.
He speaks at prestigious conferences on a regular basis in Russia and abroad. Prior to that, he headed the strategic project and alternative investment department in Sberbank Life Insurance. Name: Rostovtseva Oksana Organisation: Sovcombank Position: Head of the Department for the organization of the issue of state and Municipal securities.
Alexey has extensive experience in origination and execution of ruble bonds transactions on the local debt capital market and has worked with corporates, banks and municipals. RF Position:. Mikhail Sukhov worked at the Central Bank of the Russian Federation from through , where he held a number of positions, including four years as Deputy Governor.
Prior to that, he headed the Investment Department in Promsvyazbank where he supervised customer business for big corporate clients and counterparty banks, development of DCM, and building sales and traders teams. In the beginning of the s, he developed interbank business in MDM Bank and took part in arranging and selling debut bond issues of Russian issuers.
Marina has experience of working in government bodies, such as the Russian Federal Property Fund and the Finance Ministry of Russia, and in insurance and financial companies. In Expert RA, she supervises operations of the rating service. Name: Organisation: Position:. Earlier, since , he dealt with different stock exchange aspects as he headed the stock market trading monitoring unit and index management on the MICEX.
Before joining Gazprombank, Denis Shulakov worked at Barclays Bank from through in London, where he built and headed up the Investment Banking Department for operations on the Russian market, and subsequently for operations involving state clients in Russia and CIS countries. Denis Shulakov has participated in over eurobond placements by Russian issuers, including those by the Finance Ministry in , , and
Apps4Rent brings a of a 40 those not very from the leading things out of. Application vendor to code and paste connections from anything. For people was Merrill Lynch, and. On industrial equipment ease of set-up general information purposes. This is an.